Successful poultry farming demands that measures are taken to control the introduction and spread of infectious agents. Whether they cause clinical or subclinical disease, infectious agents have the potential to significantly reduce the productivity, profitability and long term financial viability of a poultry operation.
CleanOxide 75 is a unique product for sanitising hard surfaces and processing equipment, as well as for treating drinking water, chilled water and other process water to assist in the prevention of the propagation and transmission of disease.
CleanOxide is not a substitute for good management practice; it is, however, a powerful tool that can assist in maintaining the highest standards of hygiene and reducing the spread of disease-causing organisms. CleanOxide 75 is a practically pure solution of chlorine dioxide – one of the most powerful and safe disinfectants known.
Chlorine dioxide is effective against all microorganisms including bacteria, bacterial spores, fungi, viruses, biofilm, protozoa and algae. Chlorine dioxide is effective against all known pathogens including viruses, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, Cryptosporidium and Legionella.
A major advantage of chlorine dioxide is that it is effective over a wide pH range making it much more effective than chlorine at controlling pathogens. For example, at pH 8.5 chlorine dioxide has been estimated to be twenty times as effective as chlorine against E. Coli (Benarde et al. Efficiency of chlorine dioxide as a bactericide Appl. Microbiol. 13: 776-780).
The mode of action of chlorine dioxide is such that microorganisms cannot develop resistance to it; therefore, CleanOxide can be used throughout the production facility without any risk of developing resistant organisms over time, even if sub-lethal doses are present.
CleanOxide can also be a very effective agent in minimising odour resulting from the growth of mould and other biological material in warm, wet conditions.
CleanOxide 75 is a practically pure solution of chlorine dioxide in water. It should not be confused with “stabilised chlorine dioxide” or “acidified sodium chlorite” which are unsuitable for use in poultry farming (because of high levels of undesirable impurities including chlorite and chlorate).
CleanOxide 75 can be used to disinfect the birds’ drinking water ensuring that the risk of transmitting disease through drinking water is reduced to a minimum.
Treating drinking water with CleanOxide at the recommended dose rate has the added beneﬁt of destroying chloroform and chloramines that may be present if the water has been chlorinated.
Water used for purposes other than drinking including chilled water used for washing carcases can be treated with CleanOxide at higher dose rates to assist in the control of the spread of disease and to reduce odour. In these situations higher dose rates are recommended to ensure high levels of residual chlorine dioxide. Bioﬁlm is a major problem in reticulation systems distributing water.
Bioﬁlm is not controlled by conventional chlorination of water even when dosed at high levels. The use of CleanOxide 75 does control bioﬁlm greatly reducing the risk of the spread of disease from this source. CleanOxide 75 can also be used to disinfect hard surfaces or processing equipment.
Regular use of CleanOxide will maintain sanitary conditions, control build up of bioﬁlm and contribute signiﬁcantly to reducing odour. CleanOxide 75 can also be used to control air-borne pathogens when appropriately diluted and misted. Animals and people should be removed from any area to be treated in this fashion.
Conventional chlorine, bromine and non-oxidising biocides are very poor at controlling microorganisms in reticulation systems because of short contact times unless dosed at very high concentrations. Even at high dose rates, these disinfectants do not control biofilm.
High concentrations of chlorine in drinking water are also potentially harmful to the birds. Most non-oxidising biocides are unacceptable in drinking water or potable water. Chlorine dioxide overcomes all these problems.
It is effective against algae, bacteria, bacterial spores, fungi, protozoa and viruses and is the only method of disinfection that is effective at controlling biofilm. Chlorine dioxide remains effective over a wide pH range from about 4 to 10. It does not react with ammonia or organic matter in the water and at the recommended dose rates is not toxic.
Any residual chlorine dioxide rapidly breaks down to harmless inorganic compounds. In addition to these benefits, chlorine dioxide when used at high enough dose rates will disinfect hard surfaces preventing the spread of disease-causing bacteria, fungi and viruses.
When using CleanOxide for the first time it may be necessary to use a “shock dose” considerably higher than the maintenance dose to remove biofilm and other biological material not controlled by conventional methods.
When shock dosing the drinking water system, do not administer the treated water to the birds. Discard this water and flush the system with clean water dosed at the normal recommended level.
When using CleanOxide 75 for the first time or when shock-dosing for the first time, there may be a visible discolouration of the water due to breakdown and removal of biofilm. As a general guide, drinking water should be dosed at 50 to lOOmL CleanOxide 75 per 1000L water.
At this dose rate, CleanOxide 75 will render the water safe for drinking without imparting any undesirable taste or odour to the water. Shock dosing is carried out at five to ten times this rate (250 to 500mL CleanOxide 75 per 1000L water).
For potable water used for wash down and other applications (excluding drinking water), a higher dose rate of 250mL CleanOxide 75 per 1000L water is recommended. For maximum control of pathogens, dosing must be continuous: If potable water is distributed through a reticulation system, the system should be shock dosed when using CleanOxide 75 for the first time and at least once every year thereafter.
Shock dose CleanOxide 75 at 2.5L CleanOxide 75 per 1000L water and leave in the system for 24 hours. If system is very heavily contaminated repeat this treatment or double the dose rate to thoroughly disinfect the system. Do not use water from shock dosing for normal operations.
Discard this water and flush system with water dosed at the maintenance dose rate. When using CleanOxide 75 for the first time, there may be a visible change in the water coming out of the system due to breakdown and removal of biofilm.
When using normal maintenance rates there is no need to flush the system. CleanOxide left in the lines will help to maintain a clean system. Chlorine dioxide degrades to harmless inorganic constituents if left in the system for more than 72 hours.
CleanOxide 75 is a very powerful and effective surface disinfectant at the recommended dose rates. Materials to be disinfected must be thoroughly cleaned before treating with CleanOxide 75 to achieve optimum results.
CleanOxide 75 should not be mixed with any other chemicals prior to use as this may substantially reduce its effectiveness as a disinfectant. The recommended rate for water used for disinfecting hard surfaces including walls, floors and equipment is 0.5 – 1L CleanOxide 75 per 1000L of water.
CleanOxide 75 can safely be used for washing bird carcases. CleanOxide 75 destroys bacteria including potentially harmful pathogens such as E.coli, as well as controlling fungi and fungal spores ensuring reduced 904risk for the consumer and increased shelf life for the produce.
Residual chlorine dioxide left on the produce degrades rapidly leaving no harmful residues. Chlorine dioxide is permitted as a processing aid for all foods (FSANZ Standard 1.3.3) provided the final food contains no more than 1 mg/kg chlorine dioxide. At the recommended dose rates, CleanOxide 75 conforms to this standard.