CleanOxide 75 is a practically pure solution of chlorine dioxide – one of the most powerful and safe disinfectants known as well as a highly effective oxidising agent for converting sulphide to sulphate.
Chlorine dioxide is also very efficient at oxidising sulphides to sulphate; thus, providing a method of simultaneously controlling sulphur reducing bacteria and removing sulphides. Sulphides are formed by the action of sulphate reducing bacteria found in oil well systems.
The sulphides react with iron in the water to form insoluble iron sulphide that in conjunction with bacterial bioﬁlm acts as a plugging agent.
The presence of sulphides also causes what is known as sour crude which is of lower quality and more expensive to reﬁne. Controlling sulphide levels in oil and gas wells is not only necessary for ensuring a higher quality product and to minimise plugging, it is also necessary for the protection of personnel from exposure to extremely toxic hydrogen sulphide gas.
CleanOxide 75 can also be used in place of or in addition to conventional biocides to control bacteria in drilling mud and hydraulic fracturing ﬂuids, downhole cleaning of injection and disposal wells, and as an emulsion breaker.
The use of oxidising biocides such as hypochlorite and ozone is associated with increased rates of corrosion.
Chlorine dioxide generated by traditional methods also suffers from this problem because of free chlorine and other corrosive by-products formed in the manufacture. Chlorine dioxide itself is not a corrosive substance.
CleanOxide 75 is a solution of pure chlorine dioxide. CleanOxide 75 does not contain any corrosive by-products nor does it break down to form any corrosive compounds. Even at elevated levels, the use of CleanOxide 75 will not result in increased corrosion.
CleanOxide 75 controls bioﬁlm more effectively than chlorine or non-oxidising biocides even when dosed intermittently. The reason why CleanOxide 75 is so effective at controlling bioﬁlm is because it is a solution of pure chlorine dioxide in water.
Chlorine dioxide does not hydrolyse in water and does not react with the polysaccharides holding the bioﬁlm together. Consequently, it is able to diffuse deep into the bioﬁlm layers destroying the microorganisms that are present. Non-oxidising biocides are generally ineffective at controlling bioﬁlm.
The environmental impact of chemical discharge is of major concern to the oil and gas industry. CleanOxide 75 has a much lower impact than alternative chemicals for a number of reasons:
- CleanOxide 75 can replace the use of persistent organic compounds such as biocides and hydrogen sulphide scavengers. Many non-oxidising biocides such as isothiazolines are extremely toxic compounds and often of relatively low biodegradability.
- CleanOxide 75 is extremely efficient and thus reduces overall chemical demand.
- CleanOxide 75 does not form organochlorine compounds by reaction of organic compounds with chlorine. Organochlorine compounds are both suspect carcinogens and known persistent pollutants.
- CleanOxide 75 does not form chloramines by reaction with ammonia.
- CleanOxide 75 has no potential to bioaccumulate.
- CleanOxide 75 degrades rapidly at the recommended dose rates (typically <72hours) to harmless inorganic compounds.
CleanOxide 75 is effective as a biocide at concentrations of 0.1 to 0.3 mg/L for potable water. Higher dose rates (up to 3 mg/L or higher) may be used for other applications depending on the quality of the water, bacteria loading and degree of control required.
If the water to be treated is high in sulphides then the dose rate is calculated according to the sulphide demand and a residual concentration of chlorine dioxide for control of biological contamination.
- CleanOxide 75 is effective over a broad pH range (4-10).
- CleanOxide 75 controls bacteria, bacterial spores, fungi, viruses, biofilm, protozoa and algae.
- CleanOxide 75 does not react with ammonia and does not produce toxic compounds in contact with organic materials present in water.
- CleanOxide 75 is not toxic at the recommended dose rates.
- CleanOxide 75 rapidly degrades to harmless inorganic chemicals when used at the recommended dose rates.
- CleanOxide 75 does not contribute to corrosion.